Don Boyd, Pamela Grossman, Hamp Lankford, Susanna Loeb & James Wyckoff. Education Finance Research Consortium. 11/2005. p. 41.
Using data on students and teachers in grades three through eight in New York City, this study assesses the effects of such programs on the teacher workforce and on student achievement. We ask whether teachers who enter through these new routes are more or less effective at improving student achievement than other teachers and whether the presence of these alternative pathways affects the composition of New York City teaching workforce.